Medical Journal Articles

The following journal articles, abstracts and editorials may be of interest to physicians considering EKG testing in Young Adults.

1.  36th Bethesda Conference: eligibility recommendations for competitive athletes with cardiovascular abnormalities Maron et al; J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2005; 45:2-63.

2.  Recommendations for competitive sports participation in athletes with cardiovascular disease. A consensus document from the Study Group of Sports Cardiology of the Working Group of Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology, and the Working Group of Myocardial and pericardial disease of the European Society of Cardiology Pelliccia et al; Eur. Heart J. 2005; 26:1422-45.

3.  Sudden death in young competitive athletes. Clinical demographic and pathological profiles Maron et al; JAMA 1996; 276:199-204. (Demonstrates failure of current methods of screening)

4.  Trends in sudden cardiovascular death in young competitive athletes after implementation of a pre participation screening program Corrado et al; JAMA 2006;296:1953-1601. (Report of the Italian experience using ECG to reduce sudden death rate)

5.  Pre-participation Screening of Young Competitive Athletes for the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death Corrado et al; J. AM. Coll. Cardiol. 2008; 52:1981-9.

6.  Clinical Review: Pre-participation screening for cardiovascular abnormalities in young competitive athletes Papadakis et al; BMJ 2008; 337:a1596

7.  Cardiovascular Screening in College Athletes With and Without Electrocardiography Baggish AL, et al; Ann Intern Med. 2010; 152:269-275

8.  Cost-Effectiveness of Electrocardiography Screening in Young Adults; Wheeler, MT et al; Ann Intern Med. 2010; 152:276-286

9.  Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm: Clinically Pertinent Controversies and Uncertainties; John A. Elefteriades, and Emily A. Farkas;J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2010;55;841-857

10.  Preliminary Findings in ECG Screening in 9,125 Young Adults Marek, etal. Circulation. 2007;116:II_845.

11.  Postmortem Long QT Syndrome Genetic Testing for Sudden Unexplained Death in the Young David J. Tester, and Michael J. Ackerman doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2006.10.010 published online Dec 28, 2006; J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.

12.  National Electrocardiography Screening for Competitive Athletes: Feasible in the United States? Editorial by Maron, BJ Ann Int Med. 2010;152:324-326

13.  Incidence of Sudden Cardiac Death in National Collegiate Athletic Association Athletes. Harmon K. et al DOI: 10.1161/CirculationAHA.110. 004622

14.  Accuracy of Interpretation of Preparticipation Electrocardiograms J Pediatr July, 2011 PDF

15.  Feasibility and findings of large-scale electrocardiographic screening in young adults: Data from 32,561 subjects by Joseph Marek, MD, Vince Bufalino, MD, Johneen Davis, BSN, MBA, Kathleen Marek, BSN, Apoor Gami, MD, MSc, FHRS, William Stephan, MD, Frank Zimmerman, MD Heart Rhythm, October 2011

16.  Key Concepts in the Evaluation of Screening Approaches for Heart Disease in Children and Adolescents : A Science Advisory From the American Heart Assocation. Journal of American Heart Ass. April 2012.pdf

17.  Pediatric Sudden Cardiac Arrest. Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics March 2012.  And from Medpage Today:

18.  ECG Before Starting Stimulants for ADHD Called a Cost-Effective Screen PDF

19.  ECG Reveals Cardiac Problems in a Third of College Athletes PDF

20.  Finding Young Athletes' Heart Defects by 12-Lead ECG PDF

21.  Sudden Death in Athletes May Be Undercounted

22.  Sudden Death in Athletes: Debate Continues

23.  NCAA-Funded Study Supports Screening NCAA Athletes for Sudden Cardiac Death Risk, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine

24.  Inter-Association Task Force Recommendations on Emergency Preparedness and Management of Sudden Cardiac Arrest in High School and College Athletic Programs: A Consensus Statement, Journal of Athletic Training

25.  NCAA Heart Disease in Student-Athletes and NCAA Cardiac 3-Minute Drill

26.  Outcomes from sudden cardiac arrest in US high schools: a 2-year prospective study from the National Registry for AED Use in Sports,, November 2013

27.  Cardiac Screening before Participation in Sports, The New England Journal of Medicine, November 2013

28.  Cardiac Screening before Participation in Sports — Polling Results, New England Journal of Medicine, March 2014

29.  NCAA Cardiac Health, January 2014 

30.  The ECG's that will be read around the world and save lives of sports people, BJSM Seattle, January 2013. 

31.  Cardiovascular screening in adolescents and young adults, BJSM, July 2014

32.  Interpretation of the electrocardiogram of young athletes, American Heart Association, December 2012

33.  Inter-Association Task Force recommendations on emergency preparedness and management of Sudden Cardiac Arrest in high school and college athletic programs, Journal of Athletic Training, March 2007

34.  Athletes sudden heart deaths eclipse past estimates: study,, July 2014

35.  Sudden cardiac death in young athletes, JACC, March 2013

36.  Abstract 16848: Evolving Standards for Athlete ECG Interpretation Result in Declining Abnormal Rates

37.  Use of Electrocardiogram as Part of the Preparticipation Examination, Pediatrics Annals, January 2016

38. Is There a Reason Why NBA Athletes Have Higher Rates of Sudden Cardiac Death? JAMA Cardiology, February 2016

39. Sudden Cardiac Death in the Young, AHA Journals

40. Interassociation Consensus Statement on Cardiovascular Care of College Student-Athletes, American College of Cardiology 

41. Why cardiovascular screening in young athletes can save lives: a critical review, BJSM, July 15, 2016 

42. An Electrocardiogram-Based Risk Equation for Incident Cardiovascular Disease From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, JAMA, August 2016

43. Electrocardiographic Screening in National Collegiate Athletic Association Athletes, The American Journal of Cardiology,  Sept. 2016


45. Pre-participation CV evaluation for athletic participants to prevent SCD: Position paper from the EHRA , EACPR, branches of the ESC, europace 2016

46. Study Shows moderate exercise may aid HCM patients, The JAMA Network, March 2017 

47. Event Risk in Children With WPW Syndrome, American College of Cardiology, April 2018 

48. Outcomes of Cardiac Screening in Adolescent Soccer Players, New England Journal of Medicine, August 2018 

49. Electrocardiogram interpretation in NCAA athletes: Comparison of the ‘Seattle’ and ‘International’ criteria, Journal of Electrocardiology, 2019 

Also, please consider using this Pediatric Sudden Cardiac Death Risk Assessment for your patients. It was developed by Dr. Robert Campbell, Chief Medical Officer, The Children's Sibley Heart Center.Download one with ICD 9 Codes.